NIACIN

INTRODUCTION:
  • Also called nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, VitaminPP
  • Can be synthesised in the human body from the amino acid tryptophan.
  • About 60 mg of tryptophan is required to result in 1 mg of niacin. 
  • Relatively stable to Light , heat , oxidation , alkali major losses due to leaching.
  • Active forms are NAD+ (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) and NADP+ (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate)
STRUCTURE:

FUNCTION:
  • NAD is important in catabolism of fat, carbohydrate, protein and NADP mostly in anabolism reactions such as fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis.
  • NADH produed is oxidised in the electron transport chain to generate ATP.
  • Improves Cholesterol Levels
  1. It can boost levels of good HDL cholesterol and lower triglycerides just as well as certain prescription drugs when given in high doses.
  2. Also helps to lower bad LDL cholesterol
  • Lowers Cardiovascular Disease Risk
It have the ability to reduce atherosclerosis, which is the dangerous hardening of the arteries that can lead to heart disease.
It play a part in the reduction of inflammation and production of histamine, which is a chemical compound capable of dilating blood vessels and improving circulation.
  • Can Help Treat Diabetes
  1. Improve the efficiency of certain oral drug treatments that are used to control diabetes.
  • Maintains Skin Health
  1. Prescribed as a natural treatment for healthy skin and clearing acne
  2. Because help to reduce skin inflammation, flare ups, irritation, redness, and more 
  • Supports Proper Brain Function
  1. Protect against Alzheimer’s Disease and other age related brain disorders that result in cognitive decline
  2. Helps with Joint Mobility and to Treat Arthritis 
  • Niacin intake with lower levels of joint pain, enhanced muscle strength, and fewer symptoms associated with muscle or joint fatigue.
  • Nicotinamide is preferred over Niacin because Flushing is seen with niacin
DEFICIENCY:
  • Pellegra
  1. Charecterised by 3Ds
  2. Diarrhoea, Dermatitis, & Dementia
  3. Development of pellagra like skin lesion in carcinoid syndrome is due to Inadequate conversion of Tryptophan to Niacin
  4. And if not treated,it will leads to the 4th D, Death
  5. Consumption of maize may aggravate Pellagra because Some strains of maize contains excess of Leucine which interferes in the conversion of Tryptophan into Niacin
  • Mucous membrane swelling- 
  1. Symptoms which affect the mouth, vagina and urethra.
  2. Can cause pain in the mouth, increased salivation, and edema of the tongue, and ulcers
  3. Skin symptoms include several types of lesions
  • Gastrointestinal (digestive) disturbances-
  1. Symptoms include burning in the pharynx and esophagus, stomach and abdominal discomfort, constipation, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea
  • Brain impairment and psychosis-
  1. Impaired consciousness, cognitive decline (dementia), disorientation, confusion, depression.
SIDE EFFECT:
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Facial flushing
  • Skin reactions, rashes
  • Headaches
  • Dizziness
  • Heart problems
  • Diabetes
  • Gallbladder or liver disease symptoms
  • Low blood pressure
  • Stomach or intestinal ulcers
  • Problems after surgery controlling blood sugar levels
RICH SOURCES:
  • Beef Liver
  • Chicken Breast
  • Tuna
  • Sunflower Seeds 
  • Grass Fed Beef
  • Lamb
  • salmon
  • Split green peas
  • Sardines
  • Turkey
  • Mushroom
  • Tahini
Exam Question
  • Nicotinamide is preferred over Niacin because Flushing is seen with niacin
  • A 54-year-old man has a total cholesterol of 272 and LDL level of 210. His therapy is initiated with dietary modification and an exercise regimen, but he is unresponsive and so is prescribed nicotinic acid (Niacin) develops facial flushing
  • Consumption of maize may aggravate Pellagra because Some strains of maize contains excess of Leucine which interferes in the conversion of Tryptophan into Niacin
  • Pigmented rash of sun-exposed areas, bright red tongue, diarrhea, apathy, memory loss and disorientation are symptoms of niacin deficiency
  • Development of pellagra like skin lesion in carcinoid syndrome is due to Inadequate conversion of Tryptophan to Niacin
  • Niacin is synthesised from Tryptophan
  • About 60 mg of tryptophan is required to result in I mg of niacin.
  • Diarrhea, Dementia & Dermatitis are seen in niacin deficiency
Don't Forget to Solve all the previous Year Question asked on NIACIN