Sodium Cromoglycate

INTRODUCTION:
  • Anti-inflammatory, nonsteroidal (inhalation)
  • Mast cell stabilizer
  • Asthma prophylactic
  • Antiallergic (inhalation)
INDICATION:
  • Asthma (prophylaxis)—Cromolyn inhalation is indicated as first-line anti-inflammatory medication, either alone or as an adjunct to bronchodilator therapy, for the prevention of airway inflammation and bronchoconstriction in patients with mild to moderate asthma who require daily therapy 
  • Bronchospasm (prophylaxis)—Cromolyn inhalation is indicated to prevent acute bronchospasm induced by exercise, or by exposure to allergens, cold, dry air, environmental pollutants, aspirin ingestion, or other known precipitating factors, whether exposure is episodic or continuous
  • Spring catarrh
  • Vernal keratoconjunctivitis
MECHANISM OF ACTION:
  • The exact mechanism by which cromolyn prevents immediate-onset and delayed-onset asthmatic reactions to inhaled allergens or nonimmunological stimuli is not completely known
  • Cromolyn inhibits the release of mediators, such as histamine and leukotrienes, from mast cells. 
  • Prevention of mediator release is thought to result from indirect blockade of the entry of calcium ions into the cells. 
  • Cromolyn has also been shown to inhibit the movement of other inflammatory cells such as neutrophils, eosinophils, and monocytes. 
  • Additionally, cromolyn has been shown in animal studies to inhibit neuronal reflexes within the lung, prevent down-regulation of beta 2-adrenergic receptors on lymphocytes, and to inhibit
  • bronchospasm caused by tachykinins
ADVERSE EFFECT:
  • Angioedema, 
  • Bronchospasm, cough
  • Dizziness, headache
  • Dysuria and urinary frequency, 
  • Joint swelling and pain, 
  • Lacrimation, 
  • Laryngeal edema, 
  • Nasal congestion, 
  • Nausea, 
  • Rash, 
  • Swollen parotid glands, and urticaria 
  • Anemia, 
  • Exfoliative dermatitis, 
  • Hemoptysis, hoarseness,
  • Myalgia, nephrosis,
  • Periarteritic vasculitis, pericarditis, peripheral neuritis,
  • Photodermatitis, 
  • Polymyositis, 
  • Pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia, and 
  • Vertigo
  • Anaphylactic reaction
Exam Question of:
  • Sodium cromoglycate is a form of therapy in spring catarrh
  • Topical sodium cromoglycate is useful in the treatment of Vernal keratoconjunctivitis
  • Inhaled sodium cromoglycate is of benefit in preventing exercise induced bronchial spasm
  • Sodium cromoglycate Inhibits degranulation of mast cells
  • Sodium cromoglycate is not a bronchodilator
  • Sodium cromoglycate acts as mast cell stablizer

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