1. The patellar ligament
- The ligaments surrounding the knee joint offer stability by limiting movements and, together with the menisci and several bursae, protect the articular capsule.
- The knee is stabilized by a pair of cruciate ligaments.
- It stretches from the lateral condyle of femur to the anterior intercondylar area.
- The ACL is critically important because it prevents the tibia from being pushed too far anterior relative to the femur.
- It is often torn during twisting or bending of the knee.
- Middle genicular artery is a branch of popliteal artery and supplies the cruciate ligaments & the synovial membrane of knee joint piercing the oblique popliteal ligament of knee
- Originates from Posterior part of intercondylar area of tibia
- It stretches from medial condyle of femur to the posterior intercondylar area.
- Injury to this ligament is uncommon but can occur as a direct result of forced trauma to the ligament.
- This ligament prevents posterior displacement of the tibia relative to the femur.
- Nerve supply of cruciate ligaments (ACL & PCL) is from posterior articular branch of tibial nerve.
- It stretches from the lateral meniscus to the medial meniscus.
- It passes in front of the menisci.
- It is divided into several strips in 10% of cases.
- The two menisci are attached to each other anteriorly by the ligament.
- Stretch from the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus to the medial femoral condyle.
- They pass posteriorly behind the posterior cruciate ligament.
- The posterior meniscofemoral ligament is more commonly present (30%); both ligaments are present less often.
1. The patellar ligament
- It connects the patella to the tuberosity of the tibia.
- It is also occasionally called the patellar tendon because there is no definite separation between the quadriceps tendon (which surrounds the patella) and the area connecting the patella to the tibia.
- This very strong ligament helps give the patella its mechanical leverage and also functions as a cap for the condyles of the femur.
- Laterally and medially to the patellar ligament the lateral and medial retinacula connect fibers from the vasti lateralis and medialis muscles to the tibia.
- Some fibers from the iliotibial tract radiate into the lateral retinaculum and the medial retinaculum receives some transverse fibers arising on the medial femoral epicondyle.
- It stretches from the medial epicondyle of the femur to the medial tibial condyle.
- It is composed of three groups of fibers, one stretching between the two bones, and two fused with the medial meniscus.
- The MCL is partly covered by the pes anserinus and the tendon of the semimembranosus passes under it.
- It protects the medial side of the knee from being bent open by a stress applied to the lateral side of the knee (a valgus force).
- It stretches from the lateral epicondyle of the femur to the head of fibula.
- It is separate from both the joint capsule and the lateral meniscus.
- It protects the lateral side from an inside bending force (a varus force). The anterolateral ligament (ALL) is situated in front of the LCL.
- The oblique popliteal ligament is a radiation of the tendon of the semimembranosus on the medial side, from where it is direct laterally and proximally.
- The arcuate popliteal ligament originates on the apex of the head of the fibula to stretch proximally, crosses the tendon of the popliteus muscle, and passes into the capsule.
- Middle genicular artery is a branch of popliteal artery and supplies the cruciate ligaments & the synovial membrane of knee joint
- Posterior cruciate ligament Prevents posterior dislocation of tibia
- Anterior cruciate ligament prevents Anterior dislocation of tibia
- Middle genicular artery pierces the oblique popliteal ligament of knee
- Posterior cruciate ligament Originates from Posterior part of intercondylar area of tibia
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