Maxillary Artery

INTRODUCTION:
  • The maxillary artery supplies deep structures of the face.
  • It branches from the external carotid artery just deep to the neck of the mandible.
  • Maxillary artery develops from 1st branchial arch
STRUCTURE:
  • The maxillary artery, the larger of the two terminal branches of the external carotid artery, arises behind the neck of the mandible, and is at first imbedded in the substance of the parotid gland; it passes forward between the ramus of the mandible and the sphenomandibular ligament, and then runs, either superficial or deep to the lateral pterygoid muscle, to the pterygopalatine fossa.
  • It supplies the deep structures of the face, and may be divided into mandibular, pterygoid, and pterygopalatine[disambiguation needed]portions.
  • First portion
  • The first or mandibular portion (or bony portion) passes horizontally forward, between the neck of the mandible and the sphenomandibular ligament, where it lies parallel to and a little below the auriculotemporal nerve; it crosses the inferior alveolar nerve, and runs along the lower border of the lateral pterygoid muscle.
Branches include:
  1. Deep auricular artery
  2. Anterior tympanic artery
  3. Middle meningeal artery
  4. Inferior alveolar artery which gives off its mylohyoid branch just prior to entering the mandibular foramen
  5. Accessory meningeal artery
Second portion
  • The second or pterygoid portion (or muscular portion) runs obliquely forward and upward under cover of the ramus of the mandible and insertion of the temporalis, on the superficial (very frequently on the deep) surface of the lateral pterygoid muscle; it then passes between the two heads of origin of this muscle and enters the fossa.
Branches include:
  1. Masseteric artery
  2. Pterygoid branches
  3. Deep temporal arteries (anterior and posterior)
  4. Buccal artery
Third portion
  • The third or pterygomaxillary portion lies in the pterygopalatine fossa in relation with the pterygopalatine ganglion. This is considered the terminal branch of the maxillary artery.
  • Branches include:
  • Sphenopalatine artery (Nasopalatine artery is the terminal branch of the Maxillary artery) major blood supply to nasal mucosa
  • Descending palatine artery (Greater palatine artery and lesser palatine artery)
  1. Infraorbital artery
  2. Posterior superior alveolar artery
  3. Artery of pterygoid canal
  4. Pharyngeal artery
  5. Middle superior alveolar artery (a branch of the infraorbital artery)
  6. Anterior superior alveolar arteries (a branch of the infraorbital artery)
Exam Question
  • Sphenopalatine artery is the terminal branch of the Maxillary artery
  • Pterygopalatine fossa contains the third segment of the maxillary artery
  • sphenopalatine artery gives major blood supply to nasal mucosa
  • Deep auricular artery ,Anterior tympanic artery, Middle meningeal artery, Inferior alveolar artery,Accessory meningeal artery are the branches of 1st part of maxillary artery
  • Middle meningeal artery is direct branch of Internal maxillary artery
  • Maxillary artery develops from 1st branchial arch
  • Posterior superior alveolar artery is branch of palatal part of mxillary artery
  • Maxillary artery is branch of external carotid artery

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