Trace element:Iodine

IODINE

  • Iodine is an essential micronutrient.
  • It is required for the synthesis of the thyroid hormones T3 & T4.
  • The adult human body contains about 50 mg of iodine and the blood level is about 8-12 mcg/dl.

DAILY INTAKE OF IODINE
WHO recommended intake of iodine is:
  • Adults: 150 micrograms
  • Pregnant and lactating women: 200 micrograms
  • Infants: 50 micrograms
  • Children (2-6 years): 90 micrograms
  • Children (7-12 years): 120 micrograms
  • By WHO standards, a population is iodine deficient when its average UIE (urine iodine excretion) falls below 50 micrograms.
  • Endemic cretinism is seen when Iodine uptake is below 20 micrograms/day.

SOURCES OF IODINE

  • The best sources of iodine are sea foods e.g., Sea fish, Sea salts.
  • Highest concentration of iodine is found in lobsters and oysters
  • Smaller amounts occur in other foods, e.g., milk, meat, vegetables, cereales.
  • The iodine content of fresh water is small and very variable..
  • About 90% of iodine comes from food eaten, the remainder from drinking water.

IODINE DEFICIENCY

  • The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that about 2 billion people are iodine-deficient, based on urinary excretion data.
  • Iodine deficiency is prevalent in many mountainous regions and in central Africa, central South America, and northern Asia.
  • Hypothyroidism in sub-himlayan region/India is due to deficiency of Iodine.
  • In areas of relative iodine deficiency, there is an increased prevalence of goiter and, when deficiency is severe, hypothyroidism and cretinism.
  • As per the World Health Organisation guidelines, iodine deficiency disorders are endemic in a community if the prevalence of goiter in school age children in more than 5%.

GOITRE CONTROL

  • There are following essential components of national goitre control programme.

1. Iodized salt

  • The iodization of salt is now the most widely used prophylactic public health measure against endemic goitre.
  • In India the level of iodization is fixed under.the Prevention of food adulteration (PFA) act and is not less than 30 ppm at the production point and not less than 15 ppm of iodine at the consumer level.
  • Iodized salt is most economical, convenient and effective means of mass prophylaxis in endemic areas.
  • Recently the National institure of Nutrition at Hyderabad has come out with a new product, common salt fortified with iron and iodine —> two in one salt (twin fortified salt or double fortified salt).
  • Iodized oil : It is another effective method for controlling goitre. IM injection of iodized oil (mostly poppy seed oil) is given. An average dose of 1 ml will provide protection for 4 years.
  • Iodized salt in iodine deficiency control programme is a type of primary prevention.

2. Iodine monitoring

  • Neonatal hypothyroidism is a sensitive pointer to environmental iodine deficiency and can thus be an effective indicator for monitoring the impact of a programme.

3.Manpower training
4.Mass communication
Efficiency of the goiter control program can be assessed by Neonatal thyroxine levels.
Exam Question

  • The best indicator for monitoring the impact of Iodine Deficiency Disor­ders Control Programme is Neonatal hypothyroidism.
  • The Iodine content in iodized salt at production point should be 30 ppm.
  • The recommended content of Iodine in salt at the consumer level is 15 ppm.
  • Iodine deficient population in the world is 20 million.
  • Endemic cretinism is seen when Iodine uptake is below 20 micro gram/day of daily intake .
  • The impact and efficiency of an iodine control program can be determined by Neonatal thyroxine levels.
  • Highest concentration of iodine is found in lobsters and oysters.
  • Iodized salt in iodine deficiency control programme is a type of primary prevention.
  • Total body iodine is about 50mg.
  • Richest source of iodine is sea food.
  • The RDA of iodine for adults is 150 microgram.
  • Fortification of salt is a component of Iodine deficiency control programme .
  • Efficiency of the goiter control program can be assessed by Neonatal thyroxine levels.
  • As per the World Health Organisation guidelines, iodine deficiency disorders are endemic in a community if the prevalence of goiter in school age children in more than 5%.
  • Hypothyroidism in sub-himlayan region/India is due to deficiency of Iodine.
  • Neonatal Hypothyroidism is the best indicator of envi­ronmental iodine deficiency .
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