TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA
- Transforming growth factor β (TGF- β) is the most important cytokine for the synthesis and deposition of connective tissue proteins.
- It is produced by most of the cells in granulation tissue, including alternatively activated macrophages.
- The levels of TGF-β in tissues are primarily regulated not by the transcription of the gene but by the posttranscriptional activation of latent TGF-β, the rate of secretion of the active molecule, and factors in the ECM, notably integrins, that enhance or diminish TGF-β activity.
- TGF-β stimulates fibroblast migration and proliferation, increased synthesis of collagen and fibronectin, and decreased degradation of ECM due to inhibition of metalloproteinases. TGF-β is involved not only in scar formation after injury but also in the development of fibrosis in lung, liver, and kidneys that follows chronic inflammation.
- TGF-β is also an antiinflammatory cytokine that serves to limit and terminate inflammatory responses. It does this by inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation and the activity of other leukocytes.
- During angiogenesis recruitment of pericytes and periendothelial cells is due to Angiopoietins, TGF & PDGF.
- Fibrosis is due to TGF Beta.
- Actions of TGF: Anti-inflammatory ,Proliferation of fibrous tissue , Inhibition of metalloproteinases .
- Anaphylaxis is not an action of TGF.
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