AIDS Control Programmes

WHO case definition for AIDS:
  • In an adult or adolescent (>12 years)
Major Signs:
  • Prolonged fever more than 1 month
  • Chronic diarrhoea > 1 month
  • Weight loss > 10% of body weight
Minor signs
  • Persistent cough for more than one month
  • Generalized pruritic dermatitis
  • History of herpes zoster
  • Chronic progressive or disseminated herpes simplex infection
  • Generalized lymphadenopathy
  • Oropharyngeal Candidiasis.
  • Expanded WHO case definition for AIDS surveillance
  1. For the purpose of surveillance on adult or adolescent (>12 years of age) is considered to have AIDS if a test for
  2. HIV antibody gives a positive result and one or more of the following conditions are present :
  3. >10% body weight loss or cachexia, with diarrhoea or fever or both, for at least 1 month, not known to be due to a condition unrelated to HIV infection.
1097 is the number of national helpline for HIV/AIDS
National Health Policy of India-2002 includes Achieve zero level transmission of HIV/AIDS by year 2010
National AIDS control Programme( launched in India in the year 1987)
  • The Govt. of India initiated programmes of prevention and raising awareness under the medium term plan (1990-92), NACP-I ( 1992-99) and NACP-II (1999-2000).
  • In April 2002, the Government of India approved the National AIDS prevention and control policy.
  • Based on the lessons learnt and achievements made in Phase I & Phase II, India has now developed the third National Programme Implementation plan (NACP-III, 2007-2012).
  • The primary goal of NACP-III is to halt and reverse the epidemic in India over the next 5 years by integrating programmes for prevention, care, support and treatment.
  • This will be achieved through 4-stages :
  1. 1. Prevention of new infection in high risk groups and general population through :
  2. a) Saturation of coverage of high risk group and targeted interventions.
  3. b) Scaled up interventions in the general population.
  4. 2. Providing greater care, support and treatment to a large number of people living with HIV/AIDS.
  5. 3. Strenthening the infrastructure, system and human resources in prevention, care support and treatment programmes at the district, state and national levels.
  6. 4. Strengthening a nation-wide strategic information management system
Blood safety programme
  • Guidelines for blood bank, blood donors and dialysis unit have been formulated.
  • The strategy is to ensure safe collection, processing, storage and distribution of blood and blood products.
  • Testing of every unit of blood is mandatory for -> HIV, HBV, HCV, malaria, syphilis.
  • The specific objective of blood safety Programme is to ensure reduction in the transfusion associated H1V transmission to less than 0.5%.
  • HIV is transmitted more easily in the presence of another STD.
  • Hence early diagnosis and treatment of STD in now recognized as one of the major strategies to control spread of HIV infection.
  • STD control programme
Condom promotion
  • HIV surveillance -4 HIV sentinel surveillance, HIV sero-surveillance, AIDS case surveillance, STD surveillance, Behavioral surveillance.
  • Targeted intervention to reduce 'he transmission of HIV amongst the most vulnerable population.
  • School AIDS educational programme(Training module called Learning for life has been prepared to bring an uniformity in approach).
  • Information, education, communication and social mobilization.
  • Family health uwarness campaign
  • Voluntary counselling and HIV testing
  • Anti-retroviral treatment (ART)
  • Numbers of centres providing ART are 91 centres
  • Specially appointed and trained doctors, counsellors and laboratory technicians
  • At these 91 centres medicines for treating 85000 patients have been made available.
  • The ART is a combination of three potent drugs, which is being given to the persons with advanced stage of AIDS.
  • Apart from providing free treatment, all the ART centres are providing counselling to the infected persons so that they maintain regularly of their medication.
  • ACO has branded the STI/RTI services as "Suraksha clinic" and has developed a communication strategy for generating demand for these services.
MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENTAL GOAL:
  • Goal: 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases:
  • 8. HIV prevalence among young people aged 15 to 24 years
  • 19. Condom use rate of the contraceptive prevalence rate
  • 20. Number of children orphaned by HIV/AIDS 21. Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria
  • 22. Proportion of population in malaria-risk areas using effective malaria prevention and treatment measures
  • 23. Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis
  • 24. Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under Directly Observed Treatment, Short-course (DOTS)
The Red Ribbon Express
  • Seeks to spread awareness about HIV/AIDS, promote safe sex and reduce discrimination against AIDS victims in India, especially those in rural regions.
  • India has the third largest population of HIV/AIDS victims worldwide (with over 2.4 million people affected in 2007), after South Africa (5.7 million) and Nigeria (2.6
  • million).
  • On-platform and off-site communication activities such as exhibits, street plays and demonstrations are used.
  • Treatment and counselling services are also available on the coach.
  • The projects target audience was broad, including youth groups, women’s groups, student communities, urban slum dwellers and farmers.
  • In its first phase the train was expected to travel 27,000km, reaching 180 stations and holding programmes in over 50,000 villages. To reach outer districts, buses and bicycles are used.
  • The Red Ribbon Express, in its second phase, also devotes information to general health, hygiene and communicable diseases such as swine influenza, tuberculosis and vreproductive and child health services.
  • v Government has Launched Third Phase of Red Ribbon Express in New Delhi on 12th Jan,Union Health & Family Welfare Minister Ghulam Nabi Azad launched the National AIDS Control Organisation's Red Ribbon Express Phase III
Integrated counselling and Testing centres (ICICs)
More than 75% of WV infected are not aware about their status and there is a need to extend access to the counselling and testing facilites and increased demand generation.
  • ICICs have been established at
i) Medical colleges            iii) Sub-district level hospitals
ii) District hospitals          iv) Community health centres.
  • it is proposed to further exend the services to 24 hours PI-ICs.
Exam Question
  • The indicators of goal 6 of Millennium Development Goal are:
  • 8. HIV prevalence among young people aged 15 to 24 years
  • 19. Condom use rate of the contraceptive prevalence rate
  • 20. Number of children orphaned by HIV/AIDS 21. Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria
  • 22. Proportion of population in malaria-risk areas using effective malaria prevention and treatment measures
  • 23. Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis
  • 24. Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under Directly Observed Treatment, Short-course (DOTS)
  • Major signs according to the AIDS case definition of the WHO are 
  • Prolonged fever more than 1 month
  • Chronic diarrhoea > 1 month
  • Weight loss > 10% of body weight
  • Red Ribbon Express Project has been launched to promote awareness about AIDS
  • AIDS is covered under “Learning for life” training module
  • 1097 is the number of national helpline for HIV/AIDS
  • National Health Policy of India-2002 includes Achieve zero level transmission of HIV/AIDS by year 2010
  • Millennium developmental goal for HIV/ AIDS is Goal 6 
  • National AIDS control Programme was started in 1987
  • Early diagnosis and treatment of STD is one of major strategy to control spread of HIV in National AIDS Control Programme
  • Sentinel surveillance methodology has been adopted in National AIDS Control Programme
  • National AIDS Control Programme have Formulating guidelines for blood banks, blood donors & dialysis units
  • Providing 3 million people treatment by end of 2005 is the "3 by 5" initiative in AIDS control programme
  • AIDS day is on 1 December
  • Eliminate HIV by 2015 is the goal for National health policy 2002 for HIV
  • In AIDs control programme, For treatment of STDs, blue colored pack is used for treatment of Genital ulcers
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