AUTISM

INTRODUCTION:
  • Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the name for a range of similar conditions, including Asperger syndrome, that affect a person's social interaction, communication, interests and behaviour.
  • In children with ASD, the symptoms are present before three years of age, although a diagnosis can sometimes be made after the age of three.
  • There's no "cure" for ASD, but speech and language therapy, occupational therapy, educational support, plus a number of other interventions are available to help children and parents.
 Signs of ASD:
Spoken language
  • Delayed speech development , or not speaking at all
  • Frequent repetition of set words and phrases
  • Speech that sounds very monotonous.
  • Preferring to communicate using single words
Responding to others
  • Not responding to their name being called.
  • Rejecting cuddles initiated by a parent or carer 
  • Reacting unusually negatively 
Interacting with others
  • Being unusually intolerant of people entering their own personal space
  • Little interest in interacting with other people or children of same age group(Lack of social reciprocity)
  • Preferring to play alone
  • Rarely using gestures or facial expressions when communicating
  • Avoiding eye contact
Behaviour
  • Repetitive movements.
  • Have a familiar routine 
  • Strong like or dislike of certain foods
  • Unusual sensory interests 
DIAGNOSIS:
  • Psychologist – a healthcare professional with a psychology degree, plus further training and qualifications in psychology
  • Psychiatrist – a medically qualified doctor with further training in psychiatry
  • Paediatrician – a doctor who specialises in treating children
  • Speech and language therapist – a specialist in recognising and treating communication problems
TREATMENT:
  • Behavioral management therapy.
  • Cognitive behavior therapy.
  • Early intervention.
  • Educational and school-based therapies.
  • Joint attention therapy.
  • Medication treatment.
  • Nutritional therapy.
  • Occupational therapy
Exam Question
  • Developed Isolated area of talent ,No attribution of Parental attitude and behavior & delayed Emergence of speech and social smile is often suggestive of childhood autism A 5-year-old boy with normal motor skills has severe language delay, shows no interest in interacting with other children or with adults, and spends a lot of time spinning around. The most likely diagnosis for this child is Infantile autism
  • A 3 year old child presents with developmental delayed in speech. He has difficulty in communication and social int
  • eractions. His teachers and parents are worried that he is not making any friends. He is observed to have unusual routines and repetitive activities is diagnosed to have autism. The parents of a 4-year-old girl Mili is worried that she is isolating herself from people. She seems to be deeply involved in her own games and keeping her toys in a particular order. She does not speak full sentences yet. All other developmental milestones were normal. She does not leave parents when she is taken out to a party or shopping. She finds it difficult to concentrate on reading and has not managed to write alphabets is diagnosed to have autism.
  • A 6-year-old boy is observed to be peculiar by his teacher. Children attempt to play with him but his response is to either ignore them or get angry at their advances. This response in someone with autism might best be described as Lack of social reciprocity.
  • Autism Starts before 2-3 years of age
  • Autism is Social and language communication problem
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