Cognitive theory

  • Acc. To Piaget the following mechanism help the child to progress from one stage to another.
  • OPERATION: An action that the child performs mentally & is reversible.
  • SCHEMATA : Represents a dynamic process of differentiation & reorganization of knowledge.
  • ASSIMILATION : New object interpreted in terms of idea or action the child has already acquired.
  • ACCOMMODATION : AN individual tendency to modify action to fit into a new situation.
  • EQUILIBRIUM: State established as new knowledge to the child.
  • It has been categorized into 4 major stages:
  • Sensorimotor stage (0 - 2 years)
  • Pre-operational stage (2 - 7 years)
  • Concrete operational stage (7-11 years)
  • Formal operational stage (11-15 years)
Sensorimotor Stage:
  • The infant constructs an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with physical actions: progressing from reflexive, instinctual action at birth to the beginning of symbolic thought toward
  • 'out of sight, out of mind' and 'here and now' is seen
  • Birth to 2 years of age end of the stage.
Preoperational Stage:
  • 2 to 7years of age
  • The child begins to represent the world with words and images. These words and images reflect increased symbolic thinking and go beyond the connection of sensory information and physical action.
Concrete Operational Stage:
  • 7to 11 years of age
  • The child can now reason logically about concrete events and classify objects into different sets.
Formal Operational Stage
  1. 11–15 years of age through adulthood
  2. The adolescent reasons in more abstract idealistic and logical way
  • MERITS : Most comprehensive theory of cognitive development. The theory propagated that we can learn as much about children’s intellectual development from examining their incorrect & correct answers to items.
  • DEMERITS: Underestimates children’s abilities. Overestimates age difference in thinking. Vagueness about the process of change. underestimates the role of the social environment.
Exam Question
  • In Piaget's theory of cognitive development 'out of sight, out of mind' and 'here and now' is seen in Sensory-motor stage
  • Concrete thinking stage of cognitive development is 5-10 years
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