Jugular Venous Pulse

JUGULAR VENOUS PULSE
Characteristic wave patterns of JVP:
a wave – right atrial contraction
x descent – atrial relaxation
c wave – bulging of tricuspid valve into the right atrium during RV isovolumetric contraction
v wave – increase in volume in venecava during systole, when tricuspid valve is closed
y descent – tricuspid valve opening and rapid inflow of blood into the right ventricle
Abnormalities on JVP
Giant 'a' wave
  • Tricuspid stenosis
  • Right atrial myxoma
  • Pulmonary hypertension
Cannon 'a' waves
  • Junctional rhythm
  • AV dissociation
  • Complete heart block
Absent 'a' wave
  • Atrial fibrillation
  • Reversal of 'x' descent
  • Tricuspid regurgitation
Accentuated `a-x' descent
  • Constrictive pericarditis
  • Cardiac tamponade
  • Restrictive cardiomyopathy
Accentuated `v-y' descent
  • Tricuspid regurgitation
  • Constrictive pericarditis
Reduced v-y descent
  • Tricuspid stenosis
  • Right atrial myxoma
Exam Question
JUGULAR VENOUS PULSE
a wave – right atrial contraction
c wave – bulging of tricuspid valve into the right atrium during RV isovolumetric contraction
v wave – increase in volume in venecava during systole, when tricuspid valve is closed
Abnormalities:
Giant 'a' wave

  • Tricuspid stenosis
Cannon 'a' waves
  • Complete heart block
Accentuated `a-x' descent
  • Cardiac tamponade
Reduced v-y descent
  • Tricuspid stenosis

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