Clinical stage 1
|Clinical stage 2|
|Clinical stage 3|
|Clinical stage 4|
- Necrotizing Granuloma
- Granulomatous inflammation is a specialized form of chronic inflammation, which begins with the uptake of foreign antigens by macrophages. These cells process and present the antigen to helper T lymphocytes, which in turn activate macrophages by interferon-γ secretion.
- Granulomas may be due to infectious and noninfectious causes.
- Usually, infectious granulomas are necrotizing and non-infectious granulomas are non-necrotizing, but there are many exceptions to this rule.
- Among the infectious causes, mycobacterial infections are of the utmost importance, especially in patients with AIDS.
- By definition caseating necrosis is pathognomonic of mycobacterial infection.
- Lung biopsy shows multiple nodular lesions consisting of large epithelioid cells surrounded by lymphocytes and fibroblasts. There is an area of necrosis in the center of some nodules.
- Numerous acid-fast bacilli are demonstrated by Ziehl-Neelsen staining within the cytoplasm of epithelioid cells.
- Rapidly progressive demyelinating disorder in which the JC virus (a papovavirus) infects oligodendroglial cells in the brain. The eosinophilic inclusions represent accumulations of JC virus. PML occurs in about 1% of AIDS patients, and is the AIDS-defining illness in half of the patients who develop the condition.
- There is no effective treatment for this disorder.
- Shows hemiparesis, ataxia, homonymous hemianopia, and cognitive deterioration.
- MRI of the brain demonstrates widespread areas of abnormal T2 signal in the white matter.
- An electroencephalogram is remarkable for diffuse slowing over both cerebral hemispheres
- Brain biopsy reveals demyelination with abnormal giant oligodendrocytes, some of which contain eosinophilic inclusions.
- HIV in children, characteristic finding is Recurrent chest infection
- Feature of HIV infection in childhood Failure to thrive is universal, Lymphadenopathy, P. Carinii pneumonia, M.C. AIDS defining illness in children, Dermatological
- complication, Recurrent and chronic bacterial infections (first sign), Candidiasis, Otitis, Sinusitis, Pneumonia, Lymphoid interstitial pneumonia, Hepatosplenomegaly,Cardiomyopathy, Anemia / Thrombocytopenia / Neutropenia Hepatitis
- Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the MOST likely condition that predisposed the patient to necrotizing granuloma developing as a result of infection by acid-fast bacilli (most likely mycobacteria).
- Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy develops hemiparesis, ataxia, homonymous hemianopia, and cognitive deterioration with MRI of the brain demonstrates widespread areas of abnormal T2 signal in the white matter and electroencephalogram is remarkable for diffuse slowing over both cerebral hemispheres where Brain biopsy reveals demyelination with abnormal giant oligodendrocytes, some of which contain eosinophilic inclusions.
- Depression is the most common psychological features of AIDS
- Teratogenic effects are rare with HIV infections
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