IMPETIGO

INTRODUCTION:
  • Impetigo is a superficial disease. 
  • This means that it is on the surface of skin.
  • Most common in children and can affect skin with no visible breaks in it.
  • It is contageous and can be spread through puss from an infected person touching your skin.
ETIOLOGY:
  • Staphylococcus (staph) bacteria or streptococcus (strep) bacteria
  • Impetigo contagiosa is caused by Group A beta hemolytic streptococci
  • Methicillin-resistant staph aureus (MRSA) is becoming a common cause.
  • The breaking of the barrier of skin. Some of these occurrences are animal bites, human bites, injury or trauma, or insect bites.
SYMPTOMS:
  • Puss filled blisters
  • Red base when popped
  • Easy to pop blisters
  • Itchy and yellow puss filled with crusty outsides
  • Skin lesions
  • Rashes that can spread with scratching
  • Swollen lymph nodes
Contagious impetigo
  • This most common form of impetigo, also called nonbullous impetigo, most often begins as a red sore near the nose or mouth which soon breaks, leaking pus or fluid, and forms a honey-colored scab, followed by a red mark which heals without leaving a scar. 
  • It is the commonest skin infection in children
  • Sores are not painful, but they may be itchy. Lymph nodes in the affected area may be swollen, but fever is rare. 
  • Touching or scratching the sores may easily spread the infection to other parts of the body.
  • Skin ulcers with redness and scarring also may result from scratching or abrading the skin. 


Bullous impetigo
  • Bullous impetigo, mainly seen in children younger than 2 years, involves painless, fluid-filled blisters, mostly on the arms, legs, and trunk, surrounded by red and itchy (but not sore) skin. 
  • The blisters may be large or small. After they break, they form yellow scabs

Ecthyma
  • Ecthyma, the nonbullous form of impetigo, produces painful fluid- or pus-filled sores with redness of skin, usually on the arms and legs, become ulcers that penetrate deeper into the dermis.
  • After they break open, they form hard, thick, gray-yellow scabs, which sometimes leave scars. 
  • Ecthyma may be accompanied by swollen lymph nodes in the affected area.
  • Image result for ecthyma

TREATMENT:
  • Prescription antibiotic cream for mild rashes
  • Prescription antibiotics taken by mouth for more severe cases
  • Treatment for impetigo includes either dicloxacillin or cephalexin can be given at a dose of 250 mg four times daily for 10 days.
  • Wash several times a day with antibacterial soap and warm water to remove the crust and puss from the lesions.
  • Can be diagnosed with a sample of the puss from the lesion.
  • Topical mupirocin ointment is also effective.
COMPLICATIONS:
  • Can cause kidney failure but this is rare
  • It causes rashes in kids.
  • Can cause permanent damage to the skin. This is rare also.
  • The infection can spread to other parts of the body. This is very common.
PREVENTION:
  • Use a clean wash cloth and towel every time you clean
  • Do not share personal care items with anyone not even family
  • Use good hygiene and wash the lesions every day and wash your hands after touching a lesion.
Exam Question
  • Impetigo contagiosa is caused by Group A beta hemolytic streptococci
  • Commonest skin infection in children is Impetigo contagiosa
  • Impetigo is a Contagious Bacterial skin infection
  • Primary pyodermas are Impetigo contagiosa
  • Treatment for impetigo includes either dicloxacillin or cephalexin can be given at a dose of 250 mg four times daily for 10 days.
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