Human Placenta

  • Human chorionic gonadotropin is produced by the human placenta having LH-like activity
  • The placental hormone that participates in stimulation of ductal growth in the mammary gland during pregnancy is Human chorionic somatotropin (HCS)
  • HBV viruses is least likely to cross placenta
  • Placenta develops from Placenta frondosum & Decidua basalis
  • Trophoblast, Fetal capillary endothelium & Mesoderm are constituent of placental barrier
  • At term, ratio of weight of fetus to weight of placenta is 6 : 1
  • Syncytiotrophoblast is the inner most part of placenta
  • In the placenta, maternal blood comes in direct contact with syncytiotrophoblast
  • The most common lesion of a mature placenta with no much clinical significance is Infarct
  • Chorionic gonadotropin, Chorionic thyrotropin & chorionic corticotropin are placental hormones
  • The placenta of twins may be Dichorionic and diamniotic in DZ twins
  • A positive "Staliworthy's sign" is suggestive of Low lying placenta
  • Common cause of retained placenta is Atonic uterus
  • Complication of manual removal of placenta are Subinvolution, Inversion of uterus & Incomplete removal of placenta
  • MC cause of secondary PPH is Retained placenta
  • The separation of normally situated placenta in a case of multiple pregnancy may be due to Increased incidence of toxaemia, Sudden escape of liquor following rupture of membranes or Deficiency of vitamin B12
  • The consequences of Rh incompatibility are not serious during first pregnancy because Antibodies are not able to cross placenta
  • A case of 32 weeks of pregnancy with cornual placenta with breech presentation, treatment of choice is Wait & Watch
  • In case of unstable lie of fetus, the placenta is usually Lower segment
  • Allyl estranol do not improve fetoplacental function in women with IUGR 
  • Best method of localization of the placenta is Ultrasonogram
  • All clotting factor decreased and bleeding time prolongs in abruptio placentae leading to DIC
  • Progesterone production require fetal steroidogenic tissue
  • Seminoma have an increased elevation of placental alkaline phosphatase in the serum as well as a positive immunohistochemical staining for placental alkaline phosphatase
  • Total foeto placental blood volume at term is estimated to be equalent to cardiac output of newborn i.e. 350 ml/kg/minute.
  • Anaesthesia of choice for manual removal of placenta is GA
  • Weight of placenta at term is 500 grams
  • Ideal management of a 37 weeks pregnant elderly primigravida with placenta praevia and active bleeding is Caesarean section
  • Placenat accrete complicates third stage of labour and is associated with a past history of caesarean section
  • After 3rd stage of labour and expulsion of placenta, patient is bleeding heavily. Ideal management would include Check for placenta in uterus, Check for laceration of labia, Uterine massage and I/V oxytocin
  • Retained placenta can lead to Placental polyp, Prolonged bleeding & Puerperal sepsis.
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